Bihar is a state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.It is the 13th-largest state of India, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi) & the third-largest state of India by population. it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges which flows from west to east.
Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh.The official languages of the state are Hindi and Urdu.Other languages commonly used within the state include Bhojpuri, Maithili, Magahi, Bajjika, and Angika (Maithili is the only one of these to be officially accepted by the government).
In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture.
Geography and climate
Its temperature is subtropical in general, with hot summers and cool winters. Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains.
The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). the state is located between 24°-20′-10″ N ~ 27°-31′-15″ N latitude and between 83°-19′-50″ E ~ 88°-17′-40″ E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet (53 m).
The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son, Budhi Gandak, Chandan, Orhani and Phalgu. Though the Himalayas begin at the foothills, a short distance inside Nepal and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar’s landforms, climate, hydrology and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example the Rajgir hills. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand.
Bihar is the largest producer of vegetables and the second-largest producer of fruits in India. Bihar has high agricultural production making it one of the strongest sectors of the state. About 80 per cent of the state’s population is employed in agriculture, which is higher as compared to India’s average. The main agricultural products produced in Bihar are litchi, guava, mango, pineapple, brinjal, lady’s finger, cauliflower, cabbage, rice, wheat and sugarcane. Though good soil and favourable climatic conditions such as good rainfall favour agriculture, it has to encounter flood threat as well, which may drain off the fertile soil, if not conserved properly.The state (mostly southern parts) faces droughts almost every year affecting production of crops such as paddy.
Bihar has emerged as brewery hub with major domestic and foreign firms setting up production units in the state. Three major firms – United Breweries Group, Danish Brewery Company Carlsberg Group and Cobra Beer – are to set up new units in Patna and Muzaffarpur in 2012.
Hajipur, near Patna, remains a major industrial city in the Bihar, linked to the capital city through the Ganges bridge and good road infrastructure.
The state’s debt was estimated at 77% of GDP by 2007. The Finance Ministry has given top priority to create investment opportunities for big industrial houses like Reliance Industries.
Further developments have taken place in the growth of small industries, improvements in IT infrastructure, the new software park in Patna, and the completion of the expressway from the Purvanchal border through Bihar to Jharkhand.
In August 2008, a Patna registered company called the Security and Intelligence Services (SIS) India Limited took over the Australian guard and mobile patrol services business of American conglomerate, United Technologies Corporation (UTC). SIS is registered and taxed in Bihar.
The State Government is setting up an Information Technology (IT) City at Rajgir in Nalanda district.Additionally, India’s first Media Hub is also proposed to be set up in Bihar.
Language and literature
Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of the State.Other languages of the state are Bhojpuri (, Maithili , Magahi , Bajjika), and Angika, of which only Maithili is recognised by the government of India. Bhojpuri and Magahi are sociolinguistically apart of the Hindi Belt languages fold, thus they were not granted official status in the state.
Urdu is secondary to Hindi in official use. It was only recently that Maithili was also included as one of the state’s official languages, although such use of it is negligible. Presently, the Bihari languages, except Maithili, are considered one of the five subgroups of Hindi by the government of India. Surajpuri is spoken in northeastern districts such as Kishanganj.
There are several traditional styles of painting practiced in Bihar. One is Mithila painting, a style of Indian painting used in the Mithila region of Bihar.Traditionally, painting was one of the skills that was passed down from generation to generation in the families of the Mithila region, mainly by women. Painting was usually done on walls during festivals, religious events, and other milestones of the life cycle, like birth, Upanayanam (the sacred thread ceremony), and marriage.
Hindu Goddess Sita, the consort of Lord Rama is believed to be born in Sitamarhi district in the Mithila region of modern-day Bihar. Gautama Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya in Bihar. Vasupujya, the 12th Jain Tirthankara was born in Champapuri, Bhagalpur. Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in Vaishali around the 6th century BC