Andhra Pradesh is located along the eastern coast of southern India.It shares its boundary with Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Telangana in the north, Tamil Nadu in the south, the Bay of Bengal to the east and Karnataka in the west and south-west.
Andhra Pradesh is the eighth largest state of India by area(ie. covering an area of 162,970 km2 (62,920 sq mi)) and tenth largest in terms of population. It has the second longest coastline (974 km) in India after Gujarat.
Andhra Pradesh is composed of two regions:
- Coastal Andhra, located along the Bay of Bengal
- Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state.
These two regions comprise 13 districts, with 9 in Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema. Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal in North Coastal Andhra is the largest city and commercial hub of the state.
The state has varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamala Hills to the shores of Bay of Bengal that supports varied ecosystems, rich diversity of flora and fauna.
There are two main rivers namely, Krishna and Godavari, that flow through the state. The seacoast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district.The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner Rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state’s geography.
The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions.
Natural vegetation and conservation
Andhra Pradesh Forest Department deals with protection, conservation and management of forests. The total forest cover of the state after the bifurcation is left with an area of 22,862 km2.The forest in the state can be broadly divided into four major biotic provinces.They are:
- Deccan Plateau
- Central Plateau
- Eastern Highland
- East Coastal Plains
The state possesses some rare and endemic plants like Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia, Psilotum nudum, etc.
The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu. The Minister of Tourism and Culture has issued a declaration of the Telugu language as a Classical Language.
Hitherto, it comprised two regions: Northern Circars and Ceded districts.
Now, the state comprises two regions:
It has a total of 13 districts, nine in Kosta and four in Rayalaseema.
Andhra Pradesh has rich culture and heritage. Kuchipudi, the state dance originated in the village of Kuchipudi in Krishna district, had entered the Guinness World Records for performing Mahabrinda Natyam with a total of 6,117 dancers in Vijayawada.
It had thirteen geographical indications in categories of agricultural handicrafts, foodstuff and textiles as per Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999. It increased to fifteen with the addition of Banaganapalle Mangoes and Bandar laddu.
The other GI tagged goods are, Bobbili Veena, Budithi Bell and Brass Craft, Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees and Paavadas, Guntur Sannam, Kondapalli Toys, Machilipatnam Kalamkari, Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics, Srikalahasti Kalamkari, Tirupati Laddu, Uppada Jamdani Sari and Venkatagiri Sari.